R.A.S. Macalister faced a crucial decision in late 1907 when he reached the bottom of the ancient Gezer Water System in Israel -- drain and excavate the pool at the bottom step or explore the cavern beyond the pool. He chose to bypass the pool and excavate the cavern. Now, more than a hundred years after Macalister's dig, a reexcavation of the water system by a team of archaeologists from New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority is bringing the implications of Macalister's choice into clear focus.